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Plano de saneamento no País pode atrasar 20 anos

No ritmo atual, meta de universalização do setor prevista pelo governo federal para 2033 só deve ser alcançada em 2053; País tem investido metade do necessário

Renée Pereira, O Estado de S.Paulo

O plano do governo federal era universalizar os serviços de saneamento básico até 2033. Mas, no ritmo atual, esse cronograma deverá atrasar, pelo menos, 20 anos, segundo o levantamento “Diagnósticos e Perspectivas para os investimentos em saneamento no Brasil”, feito pela GO Associados. Para atingir a meta, o País teria de investir R$ 20 bilhões por ano até 2033. De 2010 a 2015, porém, o investimento médio ficou na casa de R$ 11 bilhões, quase a metade do necessário.

Resultado disso, é o baixo nível de cobertura dos serviços. O índice de coleta de esgoto, por exemplo, está em 50% e o de tratamento de esgoto, em 42,7%. Entre 2005 e 2015, esses indicadores melhoraram, mas de uma forma muito lenta, na proporção de 1 ponto porcentual ao ano – número incompatível com as metas do Plano Nacional de Saneamento Básico (Plansab).

Outro dado preocupante é que, nesse mesmo período, o número de domicílios sem rede de esgoto aumentou, de 25,6 milhões para 28,5 milhões. A explicação é que, apesar do aumento do atendimento, ocorreu também um crescimento populacional e uma mudança demográfica representativa no período. Os serviços de abastecimento de água estão em uma posição melhor, mas ficaram basicamente estáveis nos últimos anos, com 93% de atendimento urbano em 2015 (83,3% de atendimento total).

O sócio da GO Associados Pedro Scazufca, especialista em saneamento e responsável pelo estudo, diz que o quadro do setor é grave, especialmente quando se analisa a situação em detalhes. “As empresas que mais precisam investir são as que menos investem. Nesses casos, se não houver mudança, não dá nem pra pensar em universalização.”

Em Rondônia, por exemplo, apenas 2% da população urbana tem coleta de esgoto e nada é tratado; no Pará, 3,41% tem rede de esgoto; e no Amapá, 3,79%. “Em muitos locais não houve avanço algum nos indicadores”, diz Scazufca. Exemplo disso, é que nesses Estados os investimentos caíram entre 10% e 27% entre 2014 e 2015, segundo o levantamento.

Scazufca afirma que no setor de água há deficiências, especialmente na Região Norte. Mas, no caso do esgotamento sanitário, o problema é geral – o que implica em gastos diretos em saúde pública. Segundo cálculos de mercado a cada R$ 1 investido no setor de saneamento, o governo economiza R$ 4 no sistema de saúde.

Diagnóstico. Hoje as empresas estaduais atendem cerca de 75% da população no abastecimento de água e 50% em esgoto. Muitas delas não têm condições de elevar o volume de investimento no setor por causa da elevado endividamento. De acordo com o diagnóstico feito pela GO Associados, umas das alternativas é aumentar as parcerias entre a iniciativa privada e o setor público.

O levantamento mostra que, apesar das companhias privadas atenderem apenas 6% dos municípios brasileiros e 14,5% das pessoas, elas foram responsáveis por 20% dos investimentos do setor em 2015. O sócio da GO Associados afirma que tem crescido a modalidade de subconcessão, em que a estatal – responsável pela concessão – faz um contrato com a iniciativa privada para transferir alguns serviços, como o esgotamento sanitário. “Isso já está ocorrendo em Teresina e em Goiás, em ambos os casos na área de serviços de esgoto.”
 

Matéria publicada no jornal O Estado de S. Paulo.
 

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