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Isenção de imposto no Paraná ajuda donos de imóveis a preservar floresta

ESTELITA HASS CARAZZAI, DE CURITIBA - FOLHA DE S. PAULO

O intenso pio das corujas foi o que mais impressionou o arquiteto Osvaldo Navaro Alves, 72. "É o som da floresta", diz, ao lembrar das primeiras noites na sua casa rodeada de mata atlântica, sob o olhar de jacus e tucanos.

Mas Navaro não está distante da cidade –ao contrário. Está bem no meio dela, em um bairro residencial de Curitiba, considerada referência em preservação da mata.

A cidade é famosa pelos parques e bosques públicos, que são 53. A área verde cobre 25% da área total do município –e, na década de 1990, lhe rendeu o apelido de "capital ecológica".

Na última década, Curitiba voltou a inovar: criou as reservas particulares municipais de floresta, como a propriedade de Navaro, que têm benefícios para preservar os bosques nativos.

Os moradores ganham isenção de IPTU e títulos de potencial construtivo, uma "moeda" inventada em Curitiva e prevista no Estatuto das Cidades, de 2001.

Como forma de estimular sua preservação, algumas propriedades estratégicas –casas históricas ou imóveis rodeados de mata nativa– ganham um título negociado e vendido a construtoras que queiram aumentar a área construída em outras regiões. Há um limite de aumento definido no plano diretor.

"A gente preserva por amor. Mas o amor é relativo: se não for um bom negócio, a maioria não faz", diz Navaro, que vive há quase 40 anos na sua reserva.
Hoje, há 17 RPPNs (Reservas Particulares do Patrimônio Natural) municipais –no Brasil inteiro, são 37. Curitiba tem quase a metade delas.

As áreas funcionam como "uma fábrica de serviços" para a cidade. "Uma fábrica de ar puro, de umidade, de controle da temperatura, que filtra a poluição, preserva as nascentes", explica a bióloga Betina Bruel, da SPVS (Sociedade de Proteção à Vida Selvagem), que participou de um mapeamento para identificar potenciais reservas.

Das áreas verdes do município, cerca de 75% estão em propriedades privadas. Daí a importância de estimular sua preservação, defende Bruel.

PRESSÕES

A cidade tem o mérito de manter a política de preservação ao longo de diferentes gestões.

"Há uma memória coletiva; os pinheiros são preservados por cultura, por reverência", diz o prefeito Rafael Greca (PMN). Ele lembra de campanhas de educação ambiental como a "Família Folha", que incentivava a reciclagem do lixo, e que, para ele, formaram gerações e mantiveram a popula- ção alerta.

"Quando as pessoas se apropriam da ideia, não há partido nem política que mude. Porque a coisa vem de baixo para cima", comenta o secretário do Meio Ambiente, Sergio Tocchio.

Mesmo em Curitiba, porém, as áreas verdes sofrem pressões –em especial, a imobiliária.

"Aqui é a cereja do bolo", diz Terezinha Vareschi, 64, dona de uma área verde no bairro de Santa Felicidade. "Se eu tivesse vendido, estava com minha vida resolvida."

Muitos dos proprietários de florestas remanescentes em Curitiba são de classe média e vivem há gerações numa área de valor milionário, mas sem recursos para mantê-la. Assim, sucumbem à oferta das construtoras, que põem a mata abaixo.

Para eles, é necessário estimular a criação das RPPNs, que ainda sofrem com a burocracia e com ameaças constantes de retrocessos, devido à pressão econômica.

A prefeitura diz estar "vigilante" e promete melhorar os mecanismos de compensação aos proprietários. "É uma vacina às pressões imobiliária e política", diz Tocchio.

No mês que vem, mais duas reservas particulares vão sair do papel, e outras 19 estão em processo de criação.

Matéria publicada na Folha de S. Paulo.

 

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