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Estudo aponta que transporte ativo traz benefícios à saúde

Cidades compactas e modelo de mobilidade urbana, que incentiva a caminhada e o uso da bicicleta, colaboram para o bem-estar da população, além de ser essencial para a saúde pública.

Por Luana Copini, da Rede Nossa São Paulo

Estudo internacional realizado por pesquisadores da Austrália, Estados Unidos, Inglaterra, China, Índia e Brasil, aponta que o planejamento urbano tem relação direta com a saúde pública.

A implantação em São Paulo, por exemplo, de um modelo de cidade compacta e, consequentemente, a adesão a um modelo de mobilidade urbana que foca no transporte ativo, poderia resultar em um aumento de 24% na atividade física praticada pelos paulistanos, seja por caminhadas ou bicicleta.

Esse aumento no deslocamento ativo na cidade, em consequência da diminuição do uso do automóvel, levaria a diminuição de 4,9% na emissão de gases causadores do efeito estufa, consequentemente, a queda de 7% no número de casos de doenças cardiovasculares, e de 5% no de diabetes tipo 2.

Todos ganhariam: a cidade, com menos congestionamentos, o planeta, com menos emissões que contribuem para o aquecimento global e a população, com ar mais limpo e menos incidência de doenças respiratórias, além da prática de exercícios físicos que favorece os cuidados com o corpo.

Neste modelo de mobilidade, ainda pode ser obsevada a questão da redução de velocidade máxima nas vias urbanas, que faz com que se crie um novo ritmo nas cidades: um ritmo ditado pela desaceleração, tanto física quanto psíquica das pessoas, o que também contribuí para a melhoria da saúde pública.

O representante brasileiro neste estudo é o pesquisador Thiago Hérick de Sá, do Departamento de Nutrição da Faculdade de Saúde Pública da Universidade de São Paulo (FSP-USP). Ele ressalta a importância de vivenciar a cidade de uma maneira mais saudável, com menos velocidade, menos trânsito, menos distâncias e mais tempo para viver. Leia a entrevista:

...

PCS: O que é uma cidade compacta?

Thiago Hérick de Sá: É uma cidade inclusiva, diversa, segura e boa para se viver. Ela tem um uso misto do solo, possui densidades ótimas e possui distâncias curtas para atividades cotidianas. Essas cidades têm um design inteligente que favorece hábitos cotidianos saudáveis, como caminhar, pedalar, plantar e passear. Há também um aumento do desejo por viver a cidade: seus cantos, sua gente, seus sistemas, sua cultura e suas possibilidades. Mas, no estudo, consideramos apenas as alterações na densidade e diversidade de uso do solo, na redução das distâncias e na mudança de modos de transporte a favor da caminhada e da bicicleta.

PCS: Como seria um modelo ideal de mobilidade urbana dentro destas cidades? E como este modelo implicaria na saúde pública?

Thiago Hérick de Sá: Um modelo ideal de mobilidade urbana favorece todas as formas de transporte ativo (caminhada, bicicleta, mãe empurrando carrinho de bebê, pessoas com mala de rodinha, caiaque, cavalo, etc.), favorece também o transporte público, e é capaz de oferecer algumas opções de mobilidade para os trajetos cotidianos. Sistemas de transporte com uso excessivo do carro são comprovadamente maléficos, pois prejudicam a saúde e o bem-estar, tanto de quem está dentro, quanto de quem está fora. É importante observar, entretanto, que é impossível construir um sistema de transporte sustentável se o desenho urbano e as condições de vida da população assim não o permitem. Uma mãe que mora na periferia, trabalha no centro e ainda tem de deixar o filho na escola, o marido no trabalho e fazer compras longe de casa não tem outra alternativa que não usar um veículo – se puder pagar por ele.

PCS: Levando em consideração os problemas das grandes cidades (centralização de serviços, predominância de transporte do uso de carro, longas distâncias, relevo e geografia, etc.) este modelo pode ser implantado?

Thiago Hérick de Sá: Não só pode como deve, é uma necessidade das grandes cidades e uma condição para combatermos, a um só tempo, problemas de saúde pública, ambientais e de aquecimento global. A própria cidade de São Paulo trouxe alguns exemplos interessantes, embora tímidos, como a redução de velocidade e a melhoria das condições de mobilidade ao pedestre e ao ciclista. Há alguns outros, como as intervenções de mobilidade de Medellin, o sistema de aluguel de bicicletas da cidade do México e as políticas recentemente implantadas em Paris, Nova York e Londres.

PCS: De que forma a redução da velocidade máxima nas vias interfere na qualidade de vida, saúde e bem-estar da população?

Thiago Hérick de Sá: Velocidades mais altas geram mais acidentes, mais feridos, feridos mais graves, e mais mortos. Gera também uma enorme iniquidade, pois promove o sofrimento justamente dos mais vulneráveis no trânsito, como crianças e idosos. Mais ainda, gera estresse e ansiedade, porque ajuda a perpetuar um espaço público agressivo e acelerado, que diminui a possibilidade de encontros e o pleno usufruto do espaço público por todos.

PCS: E as ciclovias?

Thiago Hérick de Sá: As ciclovias vão exatamente na direção contrária, pois aumentam o uso da bicicleta, que por sua vez, ajuda a aumentar os níveis de atividade física, reduzir a poluição do ar e retirar veículos motorizados das ruas, que são as principais fontes de risco no trânsito. Mais ainda, construir infraestrutura cicloviária é fundamental para reduzir iniquidades no uso da bicicleta, pois mulheres, crianças e idosos, justamente os que menos usam as bicicleta em São Paulo, são mais avessas ao risco e, portanto, menos propensos a pedalar na falta de uma estrutura que aumente a segurança, como é o caso das ciclovias. Importante destacar também que há uma necessidade absurda na melhoria das calçadas, sobretudo nos bairros mais pobres e afastados. 

PCS: E as faixas/corredores de ônibus?

Thiago Hérick de Sá: As faixas de ônibus privilegiam o transporte público, o que, a um só tempo, reduz o tempo da viagem, amplia a equidade no uso do espaço público e ajuda a aumentar os níveis de atividade física, uma vez que sempre haverá pelo menos um pouco de caminhada envolvido no uso do transporte público. A ressalva no caso de São Paulo, é que também precisamos ampliar a inclusão ao sistema de transporte público e reduzir as emissões dos ônibus urbanos, que tem uma contribuição decisiva para o fato da capital estar entre as principais cidades – de países em desenvolvimento – que não atendem aos níveis mínimos de poluição do ar recomendados pela Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS).

PCS: A responsabilidade pela implementação deste modelo é só do poder público, ou também é um paradigma comportamental da própria população? 

Thiago Hérick de Sá: A participação popular é decisiva e ela pode se dar tanto a partir de mudanças no cotidiano, como pela organização social, isto para pressionar e apoiar o poder público na construção de uma cidade do futuro. O modo como nos movemos, como comemos, como atuamos na nossa comunidade, tudo isto são atos políticos, que contribuem decisivamente para as mudanças. Aqui vale a ressalva de que, para a maioria das pessoas, mudar práticas cotidianas simplesmente não é uma opção, por razões ditas anteriormente. Aí fica evidente o papel fundamental do poder público para regular a cidade, promover ações favoráveis à saúde pública, ao ambiente e ao enfrentamento das mudanças climáticas, e desencorajar ações que vão na direção contrária. A Nova Agenda Urbana também recomenda a participação ativa da sociedade em parceria com o poder público para o exercício constitucional do direito à cidade, à transformação da cidade a partir dos anseios e desejos coletivos.

...

Conheça o estudo.

O artigo “Land use, transport, and population health: estimating the health benefits of compact cities” foi publicado na série especial da revista Lancet sobre planejamento urbano, transporte e saúde.

 

Outras notícias relacionadas ao estudo:

Estudo estima impactos do planejamento urbano na saúde

Prefeito que aumentar velocidade deveria ser punido, diz pesquisador da USP

Pesquisa da USP mostra benefícios à saúde pelos transportes públicos e reorganização urbana

Planejamento urbano e transporte impactam na saúde

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