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Apesar da SOS Mata Atlântica, resta muito pouco da floresta

Apesar da SOS Mata Atlântica, resta muito pouco da floresta

Quando um grupo de estudantes da USP se revoltou contra o plano de construção de um aeroporto nas matas de Caucaia do Alto (periferia de São Paulo), ali por 1978, poucos poderiam imaginar que começava a nascer um dos mais bem-sucedidos projetos ambientalistas do Brasil.

Os jovens fundaram uma das primeiras ONGs verdes do país, a Oikos, em 1980.

Após cinco anos, o grupo deu origem à SOS Mata Atlântica, que iniciou o mapeamento dos remanescentes da floresta tropical que recebeu os portugueses e abrigou seus descendentes por cinco séculos, pagando alto preço por isso.

Graças a esses idealistas com senso prático e pendor científico, conta-se hoje com uma valiosa série histórica sobre o desmatamento no bioma que deu ao país nascente sua primeira fonte de renda, o pau-brasil.

E, por extensão, seu nome próprio.

No entanto, quando essa vigilância sistemática começou, há três décadas, já restava muito pouco a preservar: não mais que 181 mil km² do total original de 1,3 milhão de km².

Ou seja, 86% da mata atlântica já haviam sucumbido à aversão brasileira pelo "mato" quando aquela moçada passou a tentar nos convencer de que isso era um desastre.

Desde então, outros 19 mil km² se perderam, uma área equivalente a quase um Sergipe inteiro. A primeira floresta brasileira avistada se reduz a 12,5% do que era.

Seria decerto muito pior se a vigilância desencadeada pela SOS Mata Atlântica não tivesse existido, mas não dá para falar em sucesso.

É o Brasil inteiro que falha quando se mostra incapaz de preservar a floresta que recicla os recursos hídricos de que depende a maior parte de sua população, ainda concentrada nas capitais que margeiam a costa do Atlântico.

Nem mesmo a recomposição ora em curso pode, com honestidade, ser encarada de modo otimista.

Embora seja um fato positivo, não se trata de obra humana, mas de seu afastamento: o que ressurge da mata atlântica se dá por regeneração natural, principalmente, e não porque o replantio estimulado por ONGs como a SOS tenha alcançado escala significativa.

Regeneração

Foram quase 2.200 km² de regeneração de 1985 a 2015, pouco menos que uma vez e meia a superfície da cidade de São Paulo. Cotejada com os 19 mil km² desmatados no mesmo período, a cifra não chega a ser animadora.

Isso não é motivo, decerto, para esmorecer.

Não só porque o que resta da mata atlântica merece ser preservado por seu valor histórico, paisagístico e de biodiversidade, mas também por razões práticas: precisamos da água que ela produz para sobreviver.

Matéria originalmente publicada no jornal Folha de São Paulo

Comentários

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