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Antártida está ficando verde devido ao aquecimento global

Da AFP

Plantas estão crescendo na Antártida como nunca antes na modernidade, estimuladas pelo aquecimento global que está derretendo o gelo e transformando paisagem branca em verde, anunciaram cientistas nesta quinta-feira (18).

Pesquisadores que estudam musgos em uma área de 640 km de extensão descobriram um forte aumento no crescimento destes vegetais nos últimos 50 anos, de acordo com o relatório publicado no jornal "Current Biology".

A Antártida possuía somente 0,3% de sua área com plantas.

"As elevações de temperatura durante cerca de meio século na península Antártica tiveram um efeito dramático sobre os bancos de musgos que crescem na região", disse o coautor do estudo, Matt Amesbury, da Universidade de Exeter.

"Se isso continuar, e com o aumento das áreas sem gelo, a península Antártica será um local muito mais verde no futuro".

Cinco núcleos de musgo –ou amostras retiradas da Terra– mostraram evidências do que os cientistas chamam de "pontos de mudança", ou pontos no tempo, após os quais a atividade biológica aumentou claramente.

As amostras das áreas incluem três ilhas da Antártida –Ilha Elefante, Ilha Ardley e Ilha Verde– onde crescem os bancos de musgo mais profundos e antigos, segundo o estudo.

"Isso nos dá uma ideia muito mais clara da escala em que essas mudanças ocorrem", disse Amesbury.

"Anteriormente, tínhamos identificado tal resposta em um único local no extremo sul da península Antártica, mas agora sabemos que os bancos de musgo estão respondendo às recentes mudanças climáticas em toda a península".

As regiões polares estão esquentando mais rapidamente do que o resto da Terra, os gases de efeito estufa provenientes da queima de combustíveis fósseis sobem para a atmosfera e retêm o calor.

O Ártico está ficando mais de quente e de forma mais rápida, mas a Antártida não fica muito atrás, com temperaturas anuais que sobem 0,5ºC a cada década, desde os anos 1950.

"O sensível crescimento do musgo relacionado ao aumento da temperatura no passado sugere que os ecossistemas irão se alterar rapidamente com o aquecimento no futuro, levando a mudanças na biologia e na paisagem desta região icônica", declarou o pesquisador Dan Charman, professor na Exeter.

"Em suma, poderíamos ver Antártida 'esverdear' paralelamente com as observações bem estabelecidas no Ártico".

Alguns pesquisadores do projeto também vieram da Universidade de Cambridge e do British Antarctic Survey. 

Matéria publicada na Folha de S. Paulo.

 

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