Início > Boas Praticas > Iniciativas urbanas para a eficiência energética

Iniciativas urbanas para a eficiência energética

Lille

Continente: 
Europa
País: 
França
A cidade de Lille, na França, elaborou e colocou em prática o Plano Territorial de Clima e Energia, para mitigar os problemas causados pelas mudanças climáticas e melhorar a eficiência energética.

Descrição:

O Plano Territorial de Clima e Energia da cidade de Lille envolve: política de habitação sustentável; planejamento urbano; mobilidade; áreas verdes; educação; cooperação descentralizada; resíduos; e iluminação pública.

Em relação aos resíduos, o governo da cidade fortaleceu a coleta seletiva de resíduos biodegradáveis e ampliou a utilização de materiais orgânicos para a geração de energia (biogás) e a produção de compostos para a agricultura.

Concluído em 2007, o Centro de Valorização Orgânica (CVO) foi colocado em operação gradualmente. 
 
A logística do CVO inclui coleta porta a porta de resíduos orgânicos domésticos e de sobras de cantinas, feiras, restaurantes e de outras instituições públicas. Posteriormente, o material é encaminhado ao centro de reciclagem de resíduos verdes e depósitos municipais.

O biogás substitui a injeção de gás natural fóssil. Em 2010, o governo foi autorizado a operar o gasoduto que liga o CVO, onde se produz o biogás, ao depósito de ônibus local. Assim, o primeiro ônibus operado com biometano começou a funcionar. No ano seguinte (2011), a válvula foi aberta oficialmente pela primeira vez na França, e mais de um milhão de metros cúbicos de biometano foram injetados na rede.
  
Para orientar a política de resíduos e de reciclagem, existe um ônibus movido a biogás que circula pela cidade. Conhecido como INFO TRI, ônibus é utilizado para responder perguntas da população sobre coleta de materiais, resíduos volumosos, reutilização e reciclagem. O objetivo é fazer com que o público mude seu comportamento em relação aos resíduos que produz.

A cidade de Lille também criou a Casa de Habitação Sustentável, para ajudar indivíduos e empresas na transição energética. Esse espaço apoia projetos de construção ou reformas que sigam critérios sustentáveis, oferecendo atendimento gratuito por meio de assessores, investidores, arquitetos e mediadores sociais.

Ao longo dos últimos vinte anos, o município francês tem desenvolvido uma política para ampliar o uso do sistema público de transporte.  Além dos ônibus que já operam com combustível livre de emissões, a cidade tem uma rede de bondes modernos, totalmente automatizados e acessíveis. Apoia programas de compartilhamento de carros, investe no desenvolvimento de ciclovias e ainda reembolsa entre 50% e 70% dos custos de locomoção dos servidores que utilizam o transporte público.

A cidade está investindo na recuperação urbana, com a estratégia de ter bairros verdes e sustentáveis. Alguns bairros da cidade já ganharam um selo nacional de ecobairro.

Funcionários municipais e alunos são convidados a participar de sensibilizações, para reduzir o consumo de energia.

O Plano de Iluminação Pública abrange o período 2013-2019 e tem uma abordagem inovadora, que equilibra as necessidades dos usuários ao mesmo tempo em que protege o meio ambiente.

Objetivos:

- Elaboração de um planejamento urbano integrado;

- Implantação de ações para a redução das emissões de gases de efeito estufa;

- Mitigação dos efeitos das mudanças climáticas.

Cronograma e Metodologia:

- Em 2007, foi concluído o Centro de Valorização Orgânica (CVO). O CVO foi dimensionado para 108.000 toneladas de biorresíduos ao ano, sendo: 47.000 toneladas coletadas seletivamente de porta em porta; 42.000 toneladas de resíduos verdes de depósito público de lixo; 8.000 toneladas de resíduos de restaurante coletivo e feiras; e 11.000 toneladas de lixo municipal;

- 2008, elaboração do Plano Territorial de Clima e Energia;

- Decreto n ° 2008-1501 de 30 de Dezembro de 2008, relativo ao reembolso de parte do valor gasto pelos funcionários públicos com a utilização do transporte coletivo;

- Em 2009, Lille assinou o Pacto de Autarcas e comprometeu-se a ir além das metas de redução das emissões de gases de efeito estufa, de 20% até 2020.

Resultados:

- Entre 2004 e 2014, com equipamentos mais eficientes e mudanças de hábito, a cidade reduziu em 42% o consumo de energia para iluminação pública. O consumo de energia em edifícios municipais também diminuiu em 13,8%;

- Em 2012, o CVO tratou 64.702 toneladas de resíduos, incluindo 52.449 toneladas produzidas na região metropolitana;

- Produção anual: biogás bruto 1.478.967 Nm3, biometano injetado 604,705 Nm3, composto comercializado 15.007 toneladas;

- A frota de ônibus da cidade tem 428 veículos e aproximadamente 95% deles são movidos a gás natural. Os ônibus que utilizam biometano reduzem pela metade a poluição sonora, além de diminuírem em: 96% as emissões de monóxido de carbono; 99% de hidrocarbonetos residuais; 51% de óxidos de nitrogênio; e 100% de partículas (quando comparado ao modelo de ônibus tradicional movido a óleo diesel);

- 3.750 projetos foram submetidos à Casa de Habitação Sustentável desde sua abertura, em outubro de 2013, e 970 foram apoiados durante o 1º semestre de 2015.

Instituições Envolvidas:

Governo Municipal de Lille

Lille Metropole (união de toda região metropolitana)

Fontes:

Centro de Valorização Orgânica

Biogás

Ações pelo Clima e Energia

Iniciativas urbanas de eficiência energética e redução de emissões (PDF)

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última modificação: seg, 14/11/2016 - 17:54

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